Sometimes their own families are not even informed. According to Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, Braun , "the development of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual LGB sexual identity is a complex and often difficult process. Unlike members of other minority groups e. Rather, LGB individuals are often raised in communities that are either ignorant of or openly hostile toward homosexuality. Outing is the practice of publicly revealing the sexual orientation of a closeted person. Many commentators oppose the practice altogether,  while some encourage outing public figures who use their positions of influence to harm other gay people.
Lesbians often experience their sexuality differently from gay men, and have different understandings about etiology from those derived from studies focused mostly on men. For information specific to female homosexuality, see Lesbian. This is the only major piece of research into female sexuality that has looked at how women understand being homosexual since Kinsey in The research yielded information about women's general understanding of lesbian relationships and their sexual orientation.
Women gave various reasons for preferring sexual relations with women to sexual relations with men, including finding women more sensitive to other people's needs. Since Hite carried out her study she has acknowledged that some women may have chosen the political identity of a lesbian. Julie Bindel , a UK journalist, reaffirmed that "political lesbianism continues to make intrinsic sense because it reinforces the idea that sexuality is a choice, and we are not destined to a particular fate because of our chromosomes.
Early 20th-century writers on a homosexual orientation usually understood it to be intrinsically linked to the subject's own sex. For example, it was thought that a typical female-bodied person who is attracted to female-bodied persons would have masculine attributes, and vice versa. Transgender and cisgender people may be attracted to men, women or both, although the prevalence of different sexual orientations is quite different in these two populations see sexual orientation of transwomen.
An individual homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual person may be masculine, feminine, or androgynous , and in addition, many members and supporters of lesbian and gay communities now see the "gender-conforming heterosexual" and the "gender-nonconforming homosexual" as negative stereotypes. However, studies by J. Michael Bailey and K.
Zucker have found that a majority of gay men and lesbians report being gender-nonconforming during their childhood years. Reliable data as to the size of the gay and lesbian population are of value in informing public policy. Measuring the prevalence of homosexuality presents difficulties.
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It is necessary to consider the measuring criteria that are used, the cutoff point and the time span taken to define a sexual orientation. The research must measure some characteristic that may or may not be defining of sexual orientation. The number of people with same-sex desires may be larger than the number of people who act on those desires, which in turn may be larger than the number of people who self-identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. A study by the CDC in which over 34, Americans were interviewed, puts the percentage of self-identifying lesbians and gay men at 1.
In October , Gallup started conducting annual surveys to study the demographics of LGBT people, determining that 3. The poll attributes the rise to greater willingness of younger people to reveal their sexual identity. In recognition of the scientific evidence,  the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the DSM in , stating that "homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities.
Thus, mental health professionals and researchers have long recognized that being homosexual poses no inherent obstacle to leading a happy, healthy, and productive life, and that the vast majority of gay and lesbian people function well in the full array of social institutions and interpersonal relationships. The consensus of research and clinical literature demonstrates that same-sex sexual and romantic attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality.
The Chinese Society of Psychiatry removed homosexuality from its Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders in after five years of study by the association. However, the experiences of discrimination in society and possible rejection by friends, families and others, such as employers, means that some LGB people experience a greater than expected prevalence of mental health difficulties and substance misuse problems. Although there have been claims by conservative political groups in the USA that this higher prevalence of mental health difficulties is confirmation that homosexuality is itself a mental disorder, there is no evidence whatever to substantiate such a claim.
Most lesbian, gay, and bisexual people who seek psychotherapy do so for the same reasons as heterosexual people stress, relationship difficulties, difficulty adjusting to social or work situations, etc. Whatever the issue, there is a high risk for anti-gay bias in psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients.
Being Gay: A Life Style Choice? - LGBT Homosexuality And Bisexuality Meanings
The appropriate application of affirmative psychotherapy is based on the following scientific facts: . Although scientists favor biological models for the cause of sexual orientation,  they do not believe that the development of sexual orientation is the result of any one factor.
They generally believe that it is determined by a complex interplay of biological and environmental factors , and is shaped at an early age. The American Academy of Pediatrics stated in Pediatrics in Despite numerous attempts, no "gay gene" has been identified. However, there is substantial evidence for a genetic basis of homosexuality, especially in males, based on twin studies ; some association with regions of Chromosome 8 , the Xq28 locus on the X chromosome , and other sites across many chromosomes.
Sanders et al.
Six types of self-identified straight people engage in various sexual hookups.
Starting in the s, potential epigenetic factors have become a topic of increased attention in genetic research on sexual orientation. Research into the causes of homosexuality plays a role in political and social debates and also raises concerns about genetic profiling and prenatal testing. Since homosexuality tends to lower reproductive success, and since there is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, it is unclear how it is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency.
There are no studies of adequate scientific rigor that conclude that sexual orientation change efforts work to change a person's sexual orientation. Those efforts have been controversial due to tensions between the values held by some faith-based organizations, on the one hand, and those held by LGBT rights organizations and professional and scientific organizations and other faith-based organizations, on the other.
Many of these individuals and groups appeared to be embedded within the larger context of conservative religious political movements that have supported the stigmatization of homosexuality on political or religious grounds. No major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation.
The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors They do, however, encourage gay affirmative psychotherapy. The American Psychological Association "encourages mental health professionals to avoid misrepresenting the efficacy of sexual orientation change efforts by promoting or promising change in sexual orientation when providing assistance to individuals distressed by their own or others' sexual orientation and concludes that the benefits reported by participants in sexual orientation change efforts can be gained through approaches that do not attempt to change sexual orientation".
Scientific research has been generally consistent in showing that lesbian and gay parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents. Patterson for the American Psychological Association found that the available data did not suggest higher rates of homosexuality among the children of lesbian or gay parents.
The terms " men who have sex with men " MSM and " women who have sex with women " WSW refer to people who engage in sexual activity with others of the same sex regardless of how they identify themselves—as many choose not to accept social identities as lesbian, gay and bisexual.
The terms are seen as problematic by some, however, because they "obscure social dimensions of sexuality; undermine the self-labeling of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people; and do not sufficiently describe variations in sexual behavior".
In contrast to its benefits, sexual behavior can be a disease vector. Safe sex is a relevant harm reduction philosophy. These safer sex recommendations are agreed upon by public health officials for women who have sex with women to avoid sexually transmitted infections STIs :. These safer sex recommendations are agreed upon by public health officials for men who have sex with men to avoid sexually transmitted infections:.
When it was first described in medical literature, homosexuality was often approached from a view that sought to find an inherent psychopathology as its root cause.riolinkgavalma.ga
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Much literature on mental health and homosexual patients centered on their depression , substance abuse , and suicide. Although these issues exist among people who are non-heterosexual , discussion about their causes shifted after homosexuality was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM in Instead, social ostracism, legal discrimination, internalization of negative stereotypes, and limited support structures indicate factors homosexual people face in Western societies that often adversely affect their mental health.
Gay and lesbian youth bear an increased risk of suicide, substance abuse, school problems, and isolation because of a "hostile and condemning environment, verbal and physical abuse, rejection and isolation from family and peers". Suggested reasons for this disparity are that 1 LGBT youths may be specifically targeted on the basis of their perceived sexual orientation or gender non-conforming appearance, and 2 that "risk factors associated with sexual minority status, including discrimination, invisibility, and rejection by family members Higher rates of family rejection were significantly associated with poorer health outcomes.
On the basis of odds ratios, lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults who reported higher levels of family rejection during adolescence were 8. Crisis centers in larger cities and information sites on the Internet have arisen to help youth and adults. Most nations do not prohibit consensual sex between unrelated persons above the local age of consent.
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Some jurisdictions further recognize identical rights, protections, and privileges for the family structures of same-sex couples, including marriage. Some countries and jurisdictions mandate that all individuals restrict themselves to heterosexual activity and disallow homosexual activity via sodomy laws. Offenders can face the death penalty in Islamic countries and jurisdictions ruled by sharia. There are, however, often significant differences between official policy and real-world enforcement.
Although homosexual acts were decriminalized in some parts of the Western world , such as Poland in , Denmark in , Sweden in , and the England and Wales in , it was not until the mids that the gay community first began to achieve limited civil rights in some developed countries. During the s and s, most developed countries enacted laws decriminalizing homosexual behavior and prohibiting discrimination against lesbian and gay people in employment, housing, and services.
On the other hand, many countries today in the Middle East and Africa, as well as several countries in Asia, the Caribbean and the South Pacific, outlaw homosexuality. In , the Supreme Court of India upheld Section of the Indian Penal Code ,  but in overturned itself and legalized homosexual activity throughout India. In the European Union , discrimination of any type based on sexual orientation or gender identity is illegal under the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Since the s, many LGBT people in the West, particularly those in major metropolitan areas, have developed a so-called gay culture.
To many, [ who? Yet not all LGBT people choose to participate in "queer culture", and many gay men and women specifically decline to do so. To some [ who? With the outbreak of AIDS in the early s, many LGBT groups and individuals organized campaigns to promote efforts in AIDS education, prevention, research, patient support, and community outreach, as well as to demand government support for these programs.
The death toll wrought by the AIDS epidemic at first seemed to slow the progress of the gay rights movement, but in time it galvanized some parts of the LGBT community into community service and political action, and challenged the heterosexual community to respond compassionately. Publicly gay politicians have attained numerous government posts, even in countries that had sodomy laws in their recent past.
Can People Stop Being Gay?
LGBT movements are opposed by a variety of individuals and organizations. Some social conservatives believe that all sexual relationships with people other than an opposite-sex spouse undermine the traditional family  and that children should be reared in homes with both a father and a mother. Policies and attitudes toward gay and lesbian military personnel vary widely around the world. Some countries allow gay men, lesbians, and bisexual people to serve openly and have granted them the same rights and privileges as their heterosexual counterparts. Many countries neither ban nor support LGB service members.
A few countries continue to ban homosexual personnel outright. Most Western military forces have removed policies excluding sexual minority members. Of the 26 countries that participate militarily in NATO , more than 20 permit openly gay, lesbian and bisexual people to serve. The other two generally do not: China bans gay and lesbian people outright, Russia excludes all gay and lesbian people during peacetime but allows some gay men to serve in wartime see below. Israel is the only country in the Middle East region that allows openly LGB people to serve in the military.
While the question of homosexuality in the military has been highly politicized in the United States, it is not necessarily so in many countries. Generally speaking, sexuality in these cultures is considered a more personal aspect of one's identity than it is in the United States. According to American Psychological Association , empirical evidence fails to show that sexual orientation is germane to any aspect of military effectiveness including unit cohesion , morale, recruitment and retention.
Societal acceptance of non-heterosexual orientations such as homosexuality is lowest in Asian, African and Eastern European countries,   and is highest in Western Europe, Australia, and the Americas. Western society has become increasingly accepting of homosexuality since the s.
In , Professor Amy Adamczyk contended that these cross-national differences in acceptance can be largely explained by three factors: the relative strength of democratic institutions, the level of economic development, and the religious context of the places where people live. In , the American Psychological Association , American Psychiatric Association and National Association of Social Workers stated in an amicus brief presented to the Supreme Court of California : "Gay men and lesbians form stable, committed relationships that are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential respects.